Movies webcam amateur look sexole
In the early Church, teachers in the catechetical schools were known as doctores audientium (Cyprian, Ep. Hartel); and finally, in the course of time, some of the most illustrious theologians were designated as "Doctors of the Church" (q.v.).Bologna at first conferred only the doctorate, but Paris and the English universities very soon introduced the preparatory degrees of baccalaureate and licentiate.Later, it is true, the licentiate was granted in the Italian university also at the first examination ( privata ); but this merely implied permission to proceed to the second, more formal, examination ( publica ) in which the licentia docendi was given.The English universities, adopting the usage of Paris, at first designated teachers of law as doctors, and professors of theology as masters; but in the course of time the former title was given to all the superior faculties, and the latter was reserved for grammar and arts.
In Germany, doctor and magister were interchangeable (Kaufmann, "Geschichte" etc., II, 268 sqq.), and though the mastership is no longer conferred as a separate degree, a trace of the medieval practice is still found in the diploma which styles its recipient "Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Arts ".
During the first half of the twelfth century, the title Doctor acquired a more special significance, though it still implied personal excellence rather than official position.