In the 19th century, Calcutta's traders and merchants traded with the rest of the British Empire, continental Europe, the United States and China.Indentured Indian labourers from Bihar, sailed to new homes in Fiji, Mauritius, Guyana, Surinam and South Africa.in 1944, it gained an absolute majority in the Bengal Assembly, and Hussein Suhrawardy became the Chief Minister.After widespread communal violence during the Direct Action Day protests in Calcutta, leading to further communal violence across British India, the creation of Pakistan became inevitable.After the Kalinga War the Maurya king Ashoka sent emissaries to spread Buddhism across Asia. Chinese travellers visited Buddhist and Hindu temples and libraries in the universities of Magadha Empire.The Emperor of Kalinga Mahameghavahana Aira Kharavela was one of the most powerful monarchs of ancient India.Its capital Calcutta grew into one of the world's greatest ports.Tea from Calcutta was off-loaded by American separatists in the American War of Independence in the 1770s.
The modern state of Odisha was known as Kalinga, Odra desha and Utkala in ancient times.After independence in 1947, the states joined the Indian Union and took their current form after the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.Today, they continue to face problems of overpopulation, environmental degradation and pervasive corruption despite significant economic and social progress.With the arrival of the Europeans in the 17th century, outposts were established in Odisha Coast and Bengal.
The European traders established their trade centres in the famous ports of Balasore, Pipili, Palur in the Odisha Coast during the rule of the last independent Hindu king Gajapati Prataprudra Dev.
India's independence movement had strong roots in East India.